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Parasitic: The most common parasites of fish are protozoa. These include species found on external surfaces and species found in specific organs. Examples include External Ciliates (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina), Flagellates (Ichthyobodo spp, Costia spp), Internal Flagellates (Hexamita, Spironucleus spp , Cryptobia) and Sporozoans.
Fungal: Aquatic fungi often are considered secondary tissue invaders that follow traumatic injuries, infectious agents, or environmental insults such as poor water quality or low water temperatures. Because many fungi grow on decaying organic matter, they are especially common in the aquatic environment.
Bacterial: Epidemics of bacterial diseases are common in dense populations of aquarium fish. Predisposition to such outbreaks frequently is associated with poor water quality, over feeding, handling and transport of fish, marked temperature changes, insufficient air flow or other stressful conditions. Examples include Fin rot, Fish tuberculosis, Mouth rot and Skin ulcers.
Stress Reduction: As noted in the Bacterial description; bacterial infections are most likely to occur whilst fish are under stress, this is also true for their susceptibility to parasitic infections like White Spot (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis). Stress reduction medications help fish during times where stresses are likely to occur, moving fish in bags/buckets for example.